Origin of Life: Can Peptides Form Naturally in Water?

first_img(Visited 518 times, 2 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Ross Anderson (PhD, biochemistry) is professor of biochemistry at The Master’s University in southern California. Dr Anderson’s expertise is in the area of biochemistry and molecular biology. He has taught Biochemistry and helped to direct research projects of graduate and medical students at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Dr. Anderson was a post-doctoral researcher Houston Neurosensory Center, and was a member of both the undergraduate and graduate faculty at Lamar University, Beaumont, TX. Dr Anderson’s research interests include structure-function studies of DNA polymerizing enzymes and the synthesis and expression of synthetic human genes in bacterial hosts. He has authored or co-authored several publications in major, peer-reviewed journals. He is a member of the American Chemical Society and Sigma Xi Research Society. Another Attempt to Leap Over an Origin-of-Life Hurdle Falls Flatby Ross Anderson, Ph.D.Well, here they go again, trying desperately to provide a glimmer of hope to those who insist that life arose by lifeless processes. Three evolutionists are proposing that you can get polypeptides to form in water without intelligent design. Their new proposal has been published in Nature.An essential part of the evolutionary hypothesis is that life allegedly arose in the ocean, in what is sometimes referred to as the “prebiotic soup.” The major problem is that, until now, no one could explain how polymers of amino acids or other biomolecules could form in the presence of water. In the cell, amino acids are polymerized by molecular machines that can deal with the loss of a molecule of water for each peptide bond formed. Outside a cell, though, if the concentration of water is high, such as in the ocean, the reverse reaction would be favored; i.e., breaking peptide bonds is greatly favored over peptide bond formation. As a consequence, several investigators have proposed other scenarios where the water problem would be avoided, but all of these scenarios are not without their own problems.Louis Pasteur, 1822-1895, proved the “law of biogenesis” – life begets life.Ideology Driving the ExperimentationIt must be borne in mind that all hypotheses as to the abiogenetic origins of life are based on the philosophical ideology that there is no Creator, or that, if there is one, he is not involved and thus had no hand in the process. Consequently, evolutionists depend on their creative imaginations to speculate as to how life may have originated from non-life. Mind you, this is in spite of experiments done long ago by Louis Pasteur and others who demonstrated that life only originates from life. Such speculations also have to propose that the laws of thermodynamics didn’t apply at the beginning.As with virtually all attempts to show that life could have arisen abiogenetically—no intelligence involved—there is a considerable amount of intelligence used to develop the scenario proposed here. What makes this proposal unique is that it examines a means whereby polymerization of amino acids can occur in the presence of water.Here are the details. The series of reactions proposed by these authors consists of three reactions, what they refer to as the “ligation cycle.” It starts with a thiolysis reaction followed by a hydrolysis reaction. The authors start with a short N-acetylated peptide with a nitrile function on the C-terminus. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is used to displace the nitrile group from the N-acetyled peptide and, in the presence of water, generate an aminoacylthioacid. This thioacid is then set for the third reaction, an oxidation reaction, whereby the thioacid function is replaced by a nitrile derivative of an amino acid (aminonitrile); the next amino acid is ligated onto the C-terminus of the acetylated peptide. The peptide is thus extended by one amino acid and possess a nitrile function and activated for the next round of reactions.And yet these reactions will not spontaneously occur without copious amounts of investigator interference (i.e., intelligent design by lab workers pushing results in non-natural directions). Some examples of significant investigator input are as follows:First, all polymerization reactions in the cell require that the monomers being polymerized first be activated. In the case of protein synthesis, each amino acid is activated by attachment to a tRNA [transfer RNA]. The authors postulate some molecules could have been available in the prebiotic soup, such as ferricyanide, H2S, thioacetate, and cyanoacetylene. From that assumption, the authors concluded that formation of aminonitriles (amino acids with a nitrile function in place of the α-carboxyl group, AA-CN) would be likely. However, it was known that these do not lend themselves to efficient ligation or polymerization. They figured that if they could convert the AA-CN to an aminothioacid (AA-SH) which is stable and soluble in water, polymerization/ligation efficiency might be improved. The thiolysis and the hydrolysis reactions were shown to efficiently convert an AA-CN to an AA-SH. This, in turn, could participate in efficient ligation/polymerization of the next AA-CN to the C-terminus, and at the same time activate the -CN moiety for the next series of reactions in the cycle. [Note: moiety refers to an indefinite portion or share.]Second, the authors found that they first had to modify the peptide with an acetyl group on the N-terminus for several reasons: (1) Without the acetyl group, they were not able to observe the generation of the aminoacylthioacid by the hydrolysis reaction, and thus no ligation would be observed. (2) Without an N-acetyl group on the N-terminus of the growing peptide, it would be progressively destroyed by the activating agent diketopiperazine (DKP). (3) Addition of the acetyl group to the α-amino group of the peptide helped to activate the nitrile moiety making it amenable to thiolysis by H2S.Third, the authors start with short, pre-formed acetylated-peptides of glycine (Ac-Gly1-6-CN) to which they investigated the ligation of single aminonitriles, or pre-formed tripeptides. The amino acids used were all purified L-amino acids which doesn’t reflect the prebiotic soup conditions where a racemic mixture of both D- and L-amino acids would have existed. Unfortunately, the authors didn’t appear to investigate whether there is a limit to the iterative ligations after which yield drops significantly. This is important because the average number of amino acids in proteins today is 400-450 amino acids, with many being much longer. To get around this, some speculate that the first proteins were smaller; again, this is pure speculation. If that were the case, then what would be the advantage of making larger, more complex proteins?Fourth, the authors used ferricyanide to add the nitrile moiety to the amino acids, however, both ferricyanide and H2S are highly reactive toward each other, thus they had to be added in separate, sequential steps to achieve the results reported. Of course, in the prebiotic soup these two reagents would have been mixed together, thus compromising the results reported here.Getting the Sequence RightAs one can see, there was significant investigator involvement. Even if there wasn’t, this would not prove evolution. In all proteins there is information contained within the specific amino acid sequence, and this information is contained in the nucleic acid, DNA. It’s not enough to propose a scheme that may provide some plausible means for the abiotic synthesis of peptides. The scheme must have a way of specifying the sequence. It is the specific amino acid sequence that determines the 3-D conformation and thus function of a protein. One has to be mindful that the specific amino acid sequence in these experiments is determined by the investigators— not nature.The authors believe their work can inform theories about the origin of life:Amide bond formation is one of the most important reactions in both chemistry and biology, but there is currently no chemical method of achieving α-peptide ligation in water that tolerates all of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids at the peptide ligation site. The universal genetic code establishes that the biological role of peptides predates life’s last universal common ancestor and that peptides played an essential part in the origins of life.They conclude with sheer speculation that blind nature learned how to control metabolic reactions:Controlled synthesis, which responds to environmental or internal stimuli, is an essential element of metabolic regulation, and we speculate that coupling iterative aminonitrile ligation to metabolic (redox) cycles may lead to positive cooperative feedback during the early evolution of life.As we have shown, however, the investigators used design to push reactions against natural tendencies. Nature is the opposite of “controlled synthesis.”Rescuing Something Useful for DesignersWhile this paper really does nothing to further evolution, it does have some significance for researchers who need to make short, synthetic peptides for use in their research. To date, the “enemy” is water; all synthesis reactions have to be carried out under anhydrous [dry] conditions. Additionally, the amino acids used must have various blocking groups added to functional groups to prevent their reaction. For example, lysine has two amino groups, but only one of them (the α-amino group) is involved in peptide bond formation in proteins. The other amino group (the ε-amino group) must be prevented from participating in bond formation. Thus, it must be blocked by another moiety that can be readily removed later.Proteins are specified sequences of amino acids that fold into molecular machines and catalysts. (Illustra Media, Origin).The scheme reported here can permit synthesis of peptides in the presence of water, and no added blocking groups are needed. Additionally, the reaction scheme reported here also preserves the chirality, or handedness, of the ligated amino acids. Finally, these reactions may be carried out at various temperature and pH values with good yields. Thus, this report may significantly change the way small peptides are synthesized in the lab.It would also be interesting to investigate whether the polymerization of nucleotides into nucleic acids, like DNA and RNA, can occur under the conditions reported here. As long as materialistic ideology is not pushing the conclusions beyond what the facts warrant, and as long as results are not made to imply that nature can synthesize the “building blocks of life” blindly, or claim that this is how life started without a Creator, then the paper has some useful ideas for scientists using intelligence to build molecules by design.ReferenceCanavelli et al., “Peptide ligation by chemoselective aminonitrile coupling in water,” Nature 10 July 2019. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1371-4last_img read more

What They Did to Succeed

first_imgSome dreamed. Some talked about doing something. They started.Some listened to others. Some heard the voice of the critics. They ignored the others. They didn’t even hear the critics.Some never tried because they were too afraid to fail. They failed.Some never tried, and so some never learned. They learned.Some that did try and failed simply quit. They tried again.Some stopped. They kept going where others quit.Some disappeared. They were still there. They were still trying.They doubled their efforts and worked harder.They learned more.They innovated. They learned to change on the fly.They achieved some minor victories. They celebrated.They capitalized on the opportunities they created. They inched forward.They got smarter. They worked even harder.They improved. They grew stronger. They started winning more frequently. And They grew from win to win.Eventually, people started to say that they had succeeded. They were celebrated as overnight successes.They started.last_img read more

Why Do My Salespeople Turnover?

first_imgThe sales leader asked a question to a group of us on the stage at the OutBound Conference. He asked, “How do I hire salespeople that won’t turnover.” Because of the limited time we had remaining, I didn’t answer the question, but it does require an answer.There are two ways to look at your results in an area like this. The first way is to assume that the salespeople are to blame. The second way is to assume that you are to blame. Only one of these ways of viewing this challenges is helpful improving your results.Nothing Is My FaultIf you believe that your salespeople are all bad, then hiring another bunch of salespeople isn’t going to improve your results. The next group is going to be equally bad. If nothing is your fault, then there is nothing you can change. You surely won’t believe that you are the source of the problem. How could you be? You’re not the one failing to sell.Absolving yourself of responsibility only ensures that you turn over more salespeople. How could it be otherwise when you are not to blame and there is nothing you can do?Everything Is My FaultIf it’s your fault that the salespeople you hire are turning over, then you are empowered to do something about it.It may be that your hiring process isn’t good, but that isn’t as likely as another reason your salespeople turnover. The more likely reason is that you aren’t as committed to their success as you need to be. The likely reason they turnover is that they aren’t being well led, well managed, and well coached. It’s also likely that they aren’t being trained and developed to succeed in sales.If I had to bet, I’d bet the salespeople are failing due to neglect in these areas before I would look to any other factor.General US Grant was the fourth General to command the Union Army. The enemy didn’t change, nor did the terrain. The resources didn’t change, nor did the Colonels and Captains. The only factor that changed was the leader. Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Nowlast_img read more

ONE: Despite last-minute opponent change, Danny Kingad ready for anything

first_imgLATEST STORIES “It happened a little less than two weeks before the bout, so it was certainly nerve-wracking,” he said. “But I’m happy that (Kichukov) stepped up to take this bout. My preparations for my return to action will not be futile.”Kingad acknowledges the challenge of changing his gameplan in short notice, but the key for him is his ability to adapt on the fly during the match while also playing it safe inside the cage.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“It’s a different opponent, so there are definitely some things you have to change up. But anything can happen in a bout and that’s always my outlook on it. You go into a match, and you have to adapt inside the cage,” he said.He continued: “Expect that I will be a better competitor inside the cage. My team has prepared a good strength and conditioning program to level up my cardio. I made sure to sharpen my striking. I also invested time in my ground game.” MOST READ Pussycat Dolls set for reunion tour after 10-year hiatus Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Typhoon ‘Tisoy’ threatens Games Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university PLAY LIST 01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Corey Brewer to sign with Thunder Families in US enclave in north Mexico hold sad Thanksgivingcenter_img Google honors food scientist, banana ketchup inventor and war hero Maria Orosa LOOK: Iya Villania meets ‘Jumanji: The Next Level’ cast in Mexico John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding PHOTO FROM ONE CHAMPIONSHIPRegardless of who is opponent is, Danny Kingad (5-1) promises to bring the same grit when he returns to the cage on ONE: Visions of Victory at Axiata Arena in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on March 9.Originally slated to face Gianni Subba, the 22-year-old Team Lakay fighter was left with two weeks to prepare for his new foe Sotir Kichukov (9-2) after the former was called up to battle Reece McLaren following the pullout of ONE Flyweight Champion Adriano Moraes.ADVERTISEMENT Read Next A victory for Kingad would allow the Baguio native to get back to title contention after failing to claim the flyweight title last November to Moraes via a first-round submission.But more than anything, he’s taking that setback as a chance for him to grow as a competitor as he builds himself back up to once again be a worthy challenger for the championship.“It’s not a defeat. I think of it as a lesson. It has served as an inspiration and a reminder to work hard and push myself to the limit in training,” he said. “The end of my 2017 left a bad taste in my mouth. My desire is to redeem myself and start my 2018 by winning my match against my Bulgarian opponent. I don’t want to sit here and be relaxed. I don’t want him to take my winning moment away from me. My mind is focused on getting that victory.”“I’m still young, and there are a lot to learn in this sport. I believe great things are ahead of me.”ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View commentslast_img read more

Barcelona has ‘doubts’ about Neymar’s future amid PSG rumors

first_imgNeymar of Barcelona reacts during their International Champions Cup football match at Hard Rock Stadium on July 29, 2017 in Miami, Florida. / AFP PHOTO / HECTOR RETAMALBARCELONA, Spain — Barcelona is worried, very worried, that Neymar might be headed to Paris-Saint Germain.The Brazil striker is expected to be at practice on Wednesday, but no one seems to know if he’ll accept a world record transfer or show up for training. Just in case, Barcelona is making moves to protect 26 million euros ($30.7 million) that would be paid to Neymar if he stays in Spain, according to a club official.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo Trump strips away truth with hunky topless photo tweet Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments Neymar also remained mum about his future while playing for Barcelona during its preseason tour in the United States before heading off to Shanghai to boost his brand as a fashion icon.Last year, Neymar signed a contract extension with Barcelona through 2021, with his buyout clause increasing to the current 222 million euros and 250 million ($288 million) by 2018. The bonus Barcelona is now trying to protect is from that deal.If PSG does sign Neymar, the cost of the transfer would more than double the 105 million euros (then $116 million) that Manchester United paid a year ago for France midfielder Paul Pogba.PSG starts its season on Saturday, while Barcelona has until Aug. 13.Two weeks ago, Barcelona president Josep Bartomeu told The AP that Neymar “is not on the market.” He then told ESPN that if Neymar “wants to go then they will have to pay the clause, right down to the last euro.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next MOST READcenter_img Church, environmentalists ask DENR to revoke ECC of Quezon province coal plant Beyoncé considering purchase of Houston Rockets ownership stake—report Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ The official, who spoke on customary condition of anonymity, said “given doubts concerning the future of the player and while the situation is resolved” the money is being held from Neymar.“What the club does with the money, it does not know yet, given the uncertainty of the future,” the official told The Associated Press.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool starsThe 25-year-old Neymar would be due the money now as per his contract renewal last year. But the amount is tiny compared to the 222 million euros ($262 million) that PSG would have to pay Barcelona to trigger the release clause included in Neymar’s contract.Neymar arrived to Barcelona on Tuesday night after some publicity events in China — both personal and for Barcelona. Catalan television channel TV3 showed images of Neymar walking quickly through Barcelona’s airport while wearing large headphones. FEU Auditorium’s 70th year celebrated with FEU Theater Guild’s ‘The Dreamweavers’ Neymar is scheduled to return to training at Barcelona’s training grounds just outside the city on Wednesday.There are growing rumors that Neymar, who has had four seasons of winning trophies and scoring spectacular goals at Barcelona, will bolt for PSG.Part of the gossip surrounding the possible transfer is that Neymar was to meet with doctors in Qatar for a medical. PSG is owned by a Qatari company.But the Barcelona official said the “club is not aware of any medical exam of the player with PSG.”Neymar’s father, who acts as his agent and is also named Neymar, arrived in Barcelona on Monday. He was swarmed by journalists at the airport but revealed nothing about his son’s intentions.ADVERTISEMENT DILG, PNP back suspension of classes during SEA Games National Coffee Research Development and Extension Center brews the 2nd National Coffee Education Congresslast_img read more